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Kisah Pilu ABK Indonesia di Kapal China, Tidur Cuma 3 Jam, Makan Umpan Ikan, Minum Sulingan Air Laut

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Kisah Pilu ABK Indonesia di Kapal China, Tidur Cuma 3 Jam, Makan Umpan Ikan, Minum Sulingan Air Laut

Kisah Pilu ABK Indonesia di Kapal China, Tidur Cuma 3 Jam, Makan Umpan Ikan, Minum Sulingan Air Laut

Kisah Pilu ABK Indonesia di Kapal China, Tidur Cuma 3 Jam, Makan Umpan Ikan, Minum Sulingan Air Laut

Inilah pengalaman pahit yang dirasakan oleh ABK asal Indonesia yang bekerja di kapal China.

Mirisnya, mereka hanya tidur 3 jam, makan umpan ikan, dan minum air sulingan air laut.

Simak kisah pilu mereka selengkapnya.

Lima orang Anak Buah Kapal (ABK) Indonesia yang bekerja di kapal China Long Xing 629 bercerita kepada BBC News Indonesia mengenai pengalaman mereka bekerja di kapal itu.

Mereka dan sembilan ABK lainnya, yang kini ada di Busan, Korea Selatan, dijadwalkan untuk kembali pulang ke Indonesia Jumat (8/5/2020).

Menteri Luar Negeri Retno Marsudi sebelumnya mengumumkan empat dari ABK yang bekerja di kapal itu meninggal dunia.

Tiga dikuburkan di laut (dilarung), sementara satu orang meninggal dunia di satu fasilitas kesehatan di Busan.

Pemerintah Indonesia meminta pemerintah China menyelidiki kasus ini dan meminta perusahaan kapal itu bertanggung jawab.

Kasus ini juga tengah diselidiki aparat keamanan di Korea Selatan. Inilah kisah yang dituturkan lima ABK dari Busan.

Tidur hanya 3 jam

Para Anak Buah Kapal (ABK) asal Indonesia menceritakan pengalaman mereka selama berada di kapal China. (KFEM via BBC)

Salah satu ABK Indonesia itu, BR, mengatakan ia tidak mampu bekerja di atas kapal ikan berbendera China itu, karena jam kerjanya yang di luar batas.

"Bekerja terus, buat makan (hanya dapat waktu) sekitar 10 menit dan 15 menit. Kami bekerja mulai jam 11 siang sampai jam 4 dan 5 pagi," ujarnya dalam wawancara melalui video online, Kamis (07/05).

"Setiap hari begitu."

Rekannya, MY, 20 tahun, mengatakan hal serupa.

Pria lulusan SMK di Kepulauan Natuna, Riau ini, acap kali "hanya tidur tiga jam". Sisanya membanting tulang mencari ikan.

"Kalau kita ngeburu kerjaan (mencari ikan), kadang kita tidur cuma tiga jam," ungkapnya.

Mereka mengatakan kapten kapal mengharuskan pada ABK Indonesia mencapai "target" ikan dalam jumlah tertentu setiap harinya.

"Mau protes, susah sekali, kita di tengah laut," kata BR.

Sejumlah ABK mengatakan kontrak kerjanya tidak mengatur soal jam kerja.

RV, 27 tahun asal Ambon, Maluku, adalah salah satunya.

"Tidak tertulis soal jam kerja, jadi baru diatur oleh kapten kapal saat di laut," ujar RV.

Namun, ada juga ABK Indonesia, yang diberangkatkan agen lain, yang jam kerjanya diatur di kontrak.

Beberapa sempat menanyakan soal jam kerja, namun tidak berlanjut, karena mengaku "takut dipulangkan".

Meski bekerja membanting tulang, sejumlah ABK itu mengaku gaji mereka belum dibayar.

Makan umpan ikan, minum sulingan air laut

Tidak hanya masalah jam kerja yang di luar batas, NA, 20 tahun, anak buah kapal Long Xin 629 asal Makasar, Sulsel, mengaku 'dianaktirikan' soal makan dan minum.

Menurutnya, ABK yang non-Indonesia mendapat jatah makanan yang "lebih bergizi" ketimbang mereka. "Kita dibedain dengan orang dia."

Di dalam kapal penangkap ikan itu, awalnya ada 20 ABK WNI dan sekitar enam orang adalah ABK asal China.

"Air minumnya, kalau dia minum air mineral, kalau kami minum air sulingan dari air laut," ungkap NA. "Kalau makanan, mereka makan yang segar-segar...," kata NA.

KR, 19 tahun, asal Manado, menambahkan, "Mereka makan enak-enak, kalau kami seringkali makan ikan yang biasanya buat umpan itu."

Melepaskan jenazah

Detik-detik pembuangan jenazah ABK Indonesia ke laut dari kapal China. (YouTube Jong Hansol)

Pengalaman pahit yang sulit mereka lupakan adalah ketika harus melarung empat jenazah rekannya ke lautan lepas.

Upaya mereka agar jenazah "disimpan" di ruang berpendingin, dan kelak dikubur "secara layak" di daratan, ditolak kapten kapal.

Mereka berulang-ulang meminta kepada kapten kapal agar jenazah rekannya itu dikubur saat kapal berlabuh.

"Kami sudah ngotot, tapi kami tidak bisa memaksa, wewenang dari dia [kapten kapal] semua," kata NA.

"Mereka beralasan, kalau mayat dibawah ke daratan, semua negara akan menolaknya," NA menirukan jawaban kapten kapal.

Dihadapkan kenyataan pahit seperti itu, NA dan rekan-rekannya yang beragama Islam, akhirnya hanya bisa memandikan dan menshalati jenazah rekan-rekannya.

"Kami mandikan, salati dan baru 'dibuang'," ungkapnya.

MY mengatakan, hal itu melanggar kontrak ABK, karena di perjanjian awal "[jenazah] ABK bisa dipulangkan."

Minta pemerintah gugat

Baik RV, BR maupun KR, MY maupun NA sepakat bahwa pemerintah Indonesia harus melakukan gugatan hukum kepada pemilik kapal asing.

"Agar kejadian ini tidak terulang lagi," ujar mereka.

Sementara, MY dan NA berharap pengalaman buruk mereka di atas kapal Long Xin 629 tidak dialami warga Indonesia yang tertarik untuk "melaut".

Untuk itulah, mereka mengharapkan agar perusahaan yang mengirimkan calon ABK agar lebih memperhatikan soal hak-hak mereka sebagai ABK.

"Kita kan sudah ada perjanjian, dan ada pelanggaran kayak gini. Kita maunya perusahaan [yang mengirimkan mereka] bersikap lebih tegas," kata MY.

"ABK, pekerjaan berisiko tinggi"

Koordinator ILO Asia Tenggara untuk Proyek Perikanan, Abdul Hakim, mengatakan para pekerja berhak tahu rincian pekerjaan mereka, seperti jam kerja, di kontrak awal.

"Itu pelanggaran," kata Abdul menanggapi pengakuan sejumlah ABK Indonesia yang mengaku kontrak kerjanya tak keterangan itu.

Ia mengatakan harusnya jam kerja hingga hak-hak pekerja untuk beristirahat dicantumkan di kontrak kerja.

Konvensi ILO No 188 Tahun 2007 Mengenai Pekerjaan dalam Penangkapan Ikan, kata Abdul, mengatur ABK berhak beristirahat selama 10 jam sehari pada kapal yang tetap di laut selama tiga hari.

"Problemnya (dalam kasus ini) ada di soal kelelahan, keletihan, dan tidak terjaminnya masa istirahat," ujar Abdul.

Sementara, Menteri Luar Negeri Retno Marsudi mengatakan, ABK di kapal ikan termasuk pekerjaan yang berisiko tinggi.

Ia mengatakan masalah seperti ini, harus diselesaikan dari hulu.

"(Pemerintah) mendorong pengawasan lebih ketat terhadap penyusunan perjanjian kerja laut antara awak kapal dengan pihak pemilik kapal sehingga tidak ada klausul yang merugikan hak-hak awak kapal," ujar Retno.

"Mendorong penegakan hukum terhadap -pihak yang memberangkatkan awak kapal tanpa melalui prosedur. Pelaksanaan hukuman perlu dikedepankan berdasarkan UU 21/2007 tentang tindak pidana perdagangan orang."

Retno mengatakan dalam konferensi pers secara daring (07/05) bahwa pihaknya telah mengadakan komunikasi dengan Dubes Tiongkok terkait kasus itu.

Salah satu yang dituntutnya adalah tanggung jawab dari perusahaan China yang mempekerjakan para ABK.

"Meminta dukungan pemerintah Tiongkok untuk membantu pemenuhan tanggung jawab perusahaan atas hak para awak kapal Indonesia, termasuk pembayaran gaji yang belum dibayarkan dan kondisi kerja yang aman," ujarnya.

Retno mengatakan, pemerintah China mengklaim, mereka akan memastikan agar perusahaan kapal China itu bertanggung jawab untuk mematuhi hukum yang berlaku dan kontrak yang sudah disepakati.

Namun Retno mengatakan pelarungan jenazah ABK Indonesia sudah sesuai dengan standar yang diterapkan ILO.


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