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Suatu Masa, Ketika China Gemetar di Hadapan Sang Khilafah

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Suatu Masa, Ketika China Gemetar di Hadapan Sang Khilafah

Suatu Masa, Ketika China Gemetar di Hadapan Sang Khilafah

Suatu Masa, Ketika China Gemetar di Hadapan Sang Khilafah

Keberhasilan Khilafah Islam, di zaman al-Walid bin ‘Abdul Malik, menaklukkan wilayah Wara’ Nahr, atau Asia Tengah, di bawah panglimanya Qutaibah bin Muslim, yang dimulai sejak tahun 86 H/705 M, mempunyai dampak politik yang luar biasa. Khususnya setelah wilayah Kirgistan berhasil ditaklukkan tahun 95 H/714 M.

Qutaibah tidak berhenti sampai di sana, tetapi terus merangsek ke depan hingga sampai di perbatasan Cina. Qutaibah meninggalkan Murwa menuju ke Kashgir, kota paling ujung menuju ke Cina. Ketika sampai di Kashgir, Kekaisaran Cina saat itu mengirim delegasi untuk menemui Qutaibah, dan menyampaikan hasrat Kaisar agar Qutaibah bersedia mengirimkan delegasi ke ibukota Cina untuk diajak berunding.

Qutaibah pun mengirimkan utusan yang dipimpin oleh Hubairah bin al-Masymaraj, yang bertujuan melakukan pembahasan dengan pihak Kekaisaran Cina. Kekaisaran Cina sendiri berusaha untuk menghentikan penaklukan Islam yang mengarah ke wilayahnya. Qutaibah memanfaatkan momentum ini untuk memastikan jalur perdagangan di Asia Tengah aman, serta melindungi kafilah dagang ke wilayah Cina. Dari sana perdagangan Timur dan Barat pun berlangsung dengan aman.

Selain itu, Kekaisaran Cina saat itu juga merupakan imperium yang sangat kuat, untuk menaklukkannya dibutuhkan persiapan tidak sedikit. Pada saat yang sama, momentum ini digunakan oleh Khilafah untuk menarik sebanyak-banyak penduduk asli Cina, agar memeluk Islam. Hasilnya, sebagian di antara mereka telah memeluk Islam.

Keinginan kuat Cina untuk mengajak berunding ini terjadi setelah mereka menyaksikan kekuatan kaum Muslim, yang berhasil menaklukkan wilayah-wilayah Asia, dan tidak bisa dibendung oleh para penguasa di sana. Bagaimana pengkhianatan penguasa Bukhara, yang sebelumnya melakukan perjanjian damai, setelah sebelumnya dikepung oleh pasukan Qutaibah, namun mereka berkhianat. Setelah itu, mereka digempur habis-habisan oleh pasukan kaum Muslim di bawah panglima Qutaibah, hingga tunduk dengan paksa (‘anwah) tahun 87 H/706 M.

Misi militer Qutaibah di Bukhara yang berlangsung selama tiga tahun itu tak ayal membuat nyali para penguasa di sekitarnya keder. Setelah Bukhara berhasil ditundukkan, pasukan Qutaibah kembali ke Murwa, dan berhasil menguasai kota-kota di wilayah tersebut. Pasukan ini terus bergerak hingga menyeberangi Sungai Jaihun. Samarkand pun tunduk dengan perjanjian damai tahun 90 H/709 M. Diikuti dengan tunduknya Khuwarizm dengan damai tahun 93 H/712 M.

Ketika penduduk Samarkand berkhianat, maka Qutaibah harus memberi pelajaran kepada mereka, sebagaimana yang diberikan kepada penduduk Bukhara. Samarkand pun ditundukkan kedua kalinya, dan kekuasaan kaum Muslim di wilayah itu pun menguat setelah suksesnya misi kedua ini.

Di Samarkand ini terdapat industri kertas milik orang-orang Cina. Industri ini dibawa oleh orang-orang Cina ke kota ini. Setelah itu, industri ini ditransformasikan oleh kaum Muslim ke Damaskus, lalu ke Baghdad di era Khilafah ‘Abbasiyyah. Kemudian ke Kairo, Afrika Utara, Shaqliya, Andalusia. Setelah itu, industri kertas ini baru dibawa ke Eropa pada abad ke-12 M.

Oleh: KH Hafidz Abdurrahman
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