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VIRUS CORONA Asalnya dari Kelelawar atau Bocornya Laboratorium Wuhan? Kini Jawabannya Terungkap

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VIRUS CORONA Asalnya dari Kelelawar atau Bocornya Laboratorium Wuhan? Kini Jawabannya Terungkap

VIRUS CORONA Asalnya dari Kelelawar atau Bocornya Laboratorium Wuhan? Kini Jawabannya Terungkap

VIRUS CORONA Asalnya dari Kelelawar atau Bocornya Laboratorium Wuhan? Kini Jawabannya Terungkap


Selama ini jadi misteri: Sebenarnya virus corona berasal dari kelelawar atau kebocoran laboratorium biologi di kota Wuhan, China? Lama jadi misteri, akhirnya kini terungkap jawabannya .....

Ya, tepis dugaan virus corona berasal dari kebocoran laboratorium, peneliti temukan fakta baru virus mirip Covid-19 pada kelelawar.

Penelitian mengenai virus corona terus dilakukan oleh para peneliti di berbegai belahan dunia.

Bagaimana virus corona berevolusi dan menyebar adalah pertanyaan yang menyebabkan perdebatan banyak orang.

Hal ini pun memicu spekulasi tentang muasal virus yang sedang menjadi pandemi di penjuru bumi.

Dahulu memang sempat beredar dugaan bahwa virus ini berasal dari kelelawar.

Namun, baru-baru ini, muncul teori yang menyebutkan virus corona menyebar berawal dari kebocoran laboratorium di Wuhan.
 

Sebuah penelitian baru di China seolah-olah menampik dugaan tersebut.

Para peneliti menemukan virus yang mirip dengan SARS-CoV-2 pada kelelawar.

Dikutip dari Science Alert, Selasa (12/5/2020), peneliti menemukan mutasi virus yang berkembang secara alami, bukan gen buatan.

"Sejak ditemukannya SARS-CoV-2, ada sejumlah teori tak berdasar yang menyebut virus tersebut berasal dari laboratorium," kata ahli mikrobiologi Shandong First Medical University, Weifeng Shi.

"Secara khusus, telah diusulkan penyisipan S1 / S2 sangat tidak biasa dan mungkin merupakan indikasi manipulasi laboratorium. Makalah kami menunjukkan dengan sangat jelas bahwa peristiwa ini terjadi secara alami pada satwa liar. Ini memberikan bukti kuat bahwa SARS-CoV-2 bukan buatan laboratorium," imbuhnya.

Virus RmYN02 pada Kelelawar Mirip dengan Virus Penyebab Covid-19

Oleh tim peneliti tersebut, virus yang ditemukan pada kelelawar itu diberi nama RmYN02.

Temuan ini adalah hasil identifikasi terhadap 302 sampel dari 227 kelelawar.

Sampel dikumpulkan di Provinsi Yunnan, China, pada paruh kedua 2019.

Setelah menganalisis sampel virus dari kelelawar ini, tim peneliti mampu mengungkap dua genom virus corona yang hampir lengkap, yakni RmYN01 dan RmYN02.

RmYN01 hanya memiliki kecocokan rendah dengan SARS-CoV-2.

Sementara RmYN02 sangat mirip dengan SARS-CoV-2, terlebih adanya kesamaan sisipan asam amino di persimpangan subunit (S1 dan S2) protein lonjakannya.

Meskipun memiliki kesamaan, bukan berarti RmYN02 adalah leluhur langsung dari virus yang menyebabkan COVID-19 di seluruh dunia.

Kecocokan gen untuk domain pengikatan reseptornya sangat rendah, hanya 61,3 persen.

Perbedaan mendasarnya yakni RmYNo2 tak memiliki bagian penting dari genom SARS-CoV-2 yang berperan dalam mengikat virus corona ke sel manusia.

Akan tetapi, menemukan genom virus corona baru sangat membantu untuk mengetahui bagaimana SARS-CoV-2 berevolusi menjadi seperti sekarang ini.

"Studi kami menegaskan kembali bahwa kelelawar, khususnya genus Rhinolophus (kelelawar tapal kuda), adalah reservoir (sarang) alami yang penting untuk virus corona dan saat ini menampung kerabat terdekat SARS-CoV-2, meskipun gambaran ini dapat berubah dengan meningkatnya pengambilan sampel satwa liar," tulis tim Weifeng Shi dalam studinya.

Para peneliti juga mengonfirmasi bahwa RmYNo2 pada kelelawar tapal kuda Melayu merupakan kerabat terdekat SARS-CoV-2.

Kendati demikian, Weifeng mengatakan bahwa kemungkinan ada lebih banyak virus di luar sana yang memiliki kecocokan.

Menurutnya, masih ada celah dalam proses evolusi virus-virus tersebut.

"Masih ada celah evolusi antara virus-virus ini. Tetapi penelitian kami sangat menyarankan bahwa pengambilan sampel lebih banyak spesies satwa liar akan mengungkapkan virus yang bahkan lebih dekat hubungannya dengan Sars-CoV-2 dan bahkan mungkin leluhur langsungnya, yang akan memberi tahu kita banyak tentang bagaimana virus ini muncul pada manusia," tutur Weifeng.

Mengapa Virus Corona Menyebar dengan Sangat Cepat? Terungkap Ahli Temukan Rahasia Ini

Masih jadi pertanyaan bagaimana virus corona beradaptasi dengan cepat dari organisme berdarah dingin ke organisme berdarah panas.

Masih perlu dilakukan pengujian lebih lanjut untuk tentukan sumber hewan yang menjadi inang awal virus ini.



Gejala umum dan risiko virus Corona

China telah mengadopsi pencegahan dan pengukuran terkontrol yang digunakan untuk epidemi besar seperti kolera.

Artinya, petugas kesehatan memiliki kuasa untuk mengunci area yang terinfeksi dan pasien yang dikarantina.

Sementara waktu, Wuhan telah menutup bandara dan stasiun kereta api untuk penumpang yang akan bepergian.

Semua transportasi publik juga masih ditahan sampai pemberitahuan lebih lanjut.
Sementara itu, kota Wuhan telah membuat mandat untuk semua orang untuk mengenakan masker wajah di tempat publik setelah jumlah kasus virus corona mencapai 500.

Meski begitu, seorang dokter ahli yang sedang mengerjakan risetnya mengenai virus Corona, mengatakan masker mulut pun tidak cukup untuk mencegah penyebaran virus tersebut.

Wang Guangfa, dokter terkemuka yang telah 'berperang' di China melawan SARS tahun 2003 silam, telah terinfeksi virus Corona sendiri tetapi sudah sembuh.

Wang yakin ia terinfeksi justru karena ia tidak mengenakan pelindung mata.

Wang, yang juga ahli pernapasan di Rumah Sakit Universitas Peking Beijing melaporkan ia telah diolok-olok di media setelah mengatakan penyakit yang disebabkan oleh virus Corona dapat dicegah dan dikontrol, dua minggu yang lalu.

Kini ia mengklaim pernyataan yang kontradiktif dengan pernyataan sebelumnya disebabkan kurangnya pelindung mata saat ia mengunjungi klinik demam dan ruang isolasi di Wuhan, tempat kasus mencuat.

Ia melaporkan: "Saat itu kami sudah sangat berhati-hati dan mengenakan masker M95.

"Namun aku segera sadar jika kami tidak mengenakan kacamata pelindung."

Ia juga mengatakan adanya gejala mata merah setelah ia kembali ke Beijing, dan tiga jam kemudian ia mulai mengalami demam dan hidung tersumbat akibat ingus yang parah.

Awalnya, ia mengira ia sakit flu karena ia belum pernah melihat pasien Wuhan menderita dari hidung tersumbat sebelumnya.

Namun selanjutnya obat flu tidak berhasil mengobatinya, dan saat diuji tes corona, ia positif mengidap penyakit tersebut.

Ia menduga, virus tersebut masuk ke tubuhnya melewati matanya.

Itu penjelasan paling masuk akal baginya.

Kini, seorang ahli Komisi Kesehatan China Li Lanjuan mengatakan staff yang akan menangani langsung pasien virus corona harus menggunakan kacamata pelindung.

Namun orang lain cukup mengenakan masker wajah.

Jika dibandingkan dengan virus SARS, dilansir dari CNN ilmuwan menyatakan jika tingkat infeksi virus ini tidak sekuat SARS.

Namun setiap harinya jumlah orang yang terinfeksi semakin meningkat.



Perbandingan mengenai virus Corona 2019 dengan virus SARS 2002-2003 silam

Studi oleh para ilmuwan di Inggris mengestimasi jumlah infeksi di Wuhan masih diremehkan, dengan jumlah kasus aktual mencapai angka 4000 per 18 Januari 2020, dan didasarkan pada penyebaran virus di kota dan negara lain dengan waktu yang terbilang cepat.

SARS telah menginfeksi lebih dari 8000 orang dan membunuh 774 dalam pandemik di wilayah Asia selama 2002 dan 2003.

David Heymann, ketua komite WHO yang menangani kasus ini mengatakan jika virus menyebar lebih mudah dari satu manusia ke manusia daripada yang sebelumnya diperkirakan. (TribunStyle.com/Gigih Panggayuh)
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