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Setelah Dikritik Ratusan Ilmuwan, WHO Kini Mengakui Virus Corona Bisa Menular melalui Udara

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Setelah Dikritik Ratusan Ilmuwan, WHO Kini Mengakui Virus Corona Bisa Menular melalui Udara

Setelah Dikritik Ratusan Ilmuwan, WHO Kini Mengakui Virus Corona Bisa Menular melalui Udara


Setelah Dikritik Ratusan Ilmuwan, WHO Kini Mengakui Virus Corona Bisa Menular melalui Udara

Temuan bahwa corona bisa menyebar lewat udara pertama kali disampaikan melalui jurnal Clinical Infectious Diseases yang disusun oleh 239 ilmuwan.

Setelah sempat menyangkal, Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia (WHO), pada Selasa (7/7/2020), mengakui virus corona penyebab Covid-19 bisa menular melalui perantara udara.

Sebelumnya, WHO sempat dikritik oleh ratusan ilmuwan karena dianggap meremehkan transmisi melalui udara.

Mereka mendesak agar WHO merevisi panduannya mengenai penanganan virus corona jenis baru ini.

Selama ini, WHO mengatakan virus bernama SARS-Cov-2 ini menyebar melalui percikan atau droplet yang dikeluarkan manusia dari hidung dan mulut.

"Kami telah membicarakan tentang kemungkinan transmisi udara dan transmisi aerosol sebagai jenis transmisi untuk Covid-19," kata Maria Van Kerkhove, pemimpin teknis WHO dalam penanganan Covid-19, dikutip dari Reuters.

Temuan bahwa virus ini bisa menyebar lewat udara pertama kali disampaikan melalui jurnal Clinical Infectious Diseases yang disusun oleh 239 ilmuwan dari 32 negara.

Jurnal tersebut menguraikan bagaimana partikel terkecil dari virus bisa bertahan cukup lama di udara sebelum akhirnya masuk melalui saluran pernapasan.

Atas temuan itulah sekelompok peneliti ini mendesak WHO untuk segera menerbitkan panduan baru dalam upaya mengatasi penyebaran virus yang sudah menyebar di seluruh dunia ini.

"Kami ingin mereka (WHO) mengakui bukti yang kami temukan," ungkap Jose Jimenez, ahli kimia dari University of Colorado yang ikut dalam penelitian.

Logo WHO di markasnya yang berada di Jenewa, Swiss. WHO telah mengakui udara sebagai medium transmisi virus corona. (FABRICE COFFRINI / AFP)

Ia menambahkan bahwa jurnal yang disampaikan ini bukan merupakan upaya untuk menyalahkan atau menjatuhkan WHO, melainkan upaya diskusi melalui pendekatan ilmiah.

Tim ilmuwan ini juga merasa bahwa temuan ini harus disampaikan secara luas oleh mereka sendiri setelah sebelumnya WHO sama sekali tidak menanggapinya.

Jimenez mengatakan pihak WHO selalu menilai bukti tentang transmisi udara ini tidak beragam secara ilmiah, dan tidak didukung oleh para ahli yang ada di bidangnya.

Benedetta Allegranzi, pimpinan teknis WHO untuk pencegahan dan pengendalian infeksi, mengatakan ada bukti yang menunjukkan penularan virus corona melalui udara. Namun, hal itu masih belum pasti.

"Kemungkinan penularan melalui udara di ruang publik - terutama di kondisi spesifik seperti padat, tertutup, serta mekanisme ventilasi yang buruk sudah dijelaskan dan tidak dapat dikesampingkan," ungkapnya.

Meskipun demikian, tambahnya, perlu lebih banyak lagi bukti yang dikumpulkan untuk bisa mendukung penelitian ini.


Jika penelitian ini nantinya bisa benar-benar terbukti dan disetujui oleh WHO, maka protokol kesehatan baru haru bisa segera pula diterbitkan.

Proses sosialisasi protokol baru juga harus dengan cepat dilakukan agar pencegahan bisa berjalan dengan efektif.

WHO: Sangat Kecil Kemungkinan Hewan Peliharaan Menularkan Covid-19 ke Manusia

Banyak anggota masyarakat yang khawatir akan penularan Covid-19 dari hewan peliharaan.

Pada awal terjadi wabah, sejumlah penghuni apartemen di Wuhan, China, melemparkan binatang peliharaannya dari ketinggian lantai kediaman mereka melalui jendela.

Aksi itu membuat banyak kucing yang tergeletak mati di jalanan sekitar gedung.

Mereka sempat panik dan khawatir ketika mendengar kabar ada kemungkinan penularan terjadi dari binatang peliharaan kepada manusia, jadi melempar binatang kesayangan ke luar rumah menjadi opsi yang mereka ambil.

Namun, hal itu ternyata tidak sepenuhnya benar.

Belum ada bukti kuat penularan

Kepala penelitian Badan Kesehatan Dunia (WHO) Soumya Swaminathan dalam sebuah konferensi pers di Jenewa menyatakan tidak ada cukup bukti yang membenarkan binatang bisa menularkan virus corona kepada manusia.

"Beberapa jenis binatang seperti musang, kucing, dan bahkan harimau, mereka sudah ada yang menerima infeksi dari manusia ke binatang, tetapi sangat sedikit bukti yang menunjukkan infeksi dari arah sebaliknya," kata Swaminathan dikutip dari Reuters, Jumat (3/7/2020).

Disebutkan, dalam percobaan yang dilakukan musang dan kucing terbukti mampu menularkan infeksi ke hewan lain dari spesies yang sama.

  Seorang pria di Beijing menjalani tes swab, Rabu (1/7/2020). Hasil studi para peneliti Harvard menyatakan bahwa strain virus corona di Beijing mungkin berasal dari Asia Tenggara. (WANG Zhao / AFP)

Namun, tidak ada bukti yang membenarkan asumsi bahwa hewan ini bisa menyebarkan Covid-19 kepada manusia.

"Sangat kecil risiko penularan (Covid-19) dari binatang peliharaan sebagaimana banyak dikhawatirkan bahwa binatang peliharaan menjadi sumber infeksi," ujar Swaminathan.

Untuk itu, rekomendasi yang dikeluarkan justru lebih kepada manusia itu sendiri.

Siapa pun yang terdeteksi mengidap Covid-19 untuk membatasi kontak dengan orang lain atau binatang.

Namun, berhubung data ini masih merupakan hasil temuan awal, WHO menyebut masih akan terus mendalami isu ini dan segera memperbarui temuannya jika memang ditemukan data yang berbeda.

Dengan demikian virus telah berpindah dari hewan ke manusia, tapi belum ada bukti virus itu dapat menular antarmanusia.

"Itu kekhawatiran kami bahwa infeksi virus G4 akan beradaptasi di manusia dan meningkatkan risiko pandemi pada manusia," tulis para peneliti sebagaimana dikutip AFP.

Para penulis pun menyerukan upaya-upaya mendesak untuk memantau orang-orang yang bekerja dengan babi.

"Ini pengingat yang baik bahwa kita terus-terusan menghadapi risiko munculnya patogen zoonosis baru dan bahwa hewan ternak, yang berkontak lebih dekat dengan manusia daripada satwa liar, juga bisa menjadi sumber virus pandemi," terang James Wood kepala departemen kedokteran hewan di Universitas Cambridge, dikutip dari AFP.

Infeksi zoonosis disebabkan oleh patogen yang melompat dari hewan ke manusia.

(TribunnewsWiki/Tyo/Kompas/Luthfia Ayu Azanella/Kontan/Prihastomo Wahyu Widodo)

Sebagian artikel ini telah tayang di Kontan.co.id dengan judul "WHO akhirnya mengakui klaim bahwa virus corona bisa menyebar lewat udara"
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