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Studi Ungkap Pria Botak Berisiko Lebih Tinggi Terkena Covid-19, Begini Penjelasannya

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Studi Ungkap Pria Botak Berisiko Lebih Tinggi Terkena Covid-19, Begini Penjelasannya

Studi Ungkap Pria Botak Berisiko Lebih Tinggi Terkena Covid-19, Begini Penjelasannya

Studi Ungkap Pria Botak Berisiko Lebih Tinggi Terkena Covid-19, Begini Penjelasannya

 

Pria botak disebut berisiko lebih tinggi menderita atau terinfeksi Covid-19 yang parah

Sebuah studi terbaru mendapati pria botak lebih berisiko lebih tinggi terkena Covid-19.

Penelitian awal yang dilakukan Brown University menemukan bahwa hormon androgen, hormon yang menyebabkan kerontokan pada rambut pria, terkait dengan kasus Covid-19 yang parah.

Peneliti menyebut penemuan mereka sebagai 'Gabrin Sign' atau 'Tanda Gabrin'.

Gabrin Sign merupakan sebutan faktor risiko ini lantaran dokter Amerika Serikat yang pertama meninggal karena Covid-19 memiliki kepala yang botak bernama Frank Gabrin.

Melansir dari Telegraph, (4/6/2020), sebuah riset yang dilakukan oleh Profesor Carlos Wambier dari Brown University, AS mengungkapkan bahwa pihaknya benar-benar berpikir bahwa kebotakan adalah prediktor sempurna dalam menunjukkan tingkat keparahan Covid-19.

Wambier mengambil data sejak awal wabah yang terjadi di Wuhan, China pada Januari 2020.


Data tersebut menunjukkan bahwa pria lebih mungkin meninggal setelah terinfeksi virus corona.

Sebuah laporan dari Public Health England menemukan, laki-laki dengan usia kerja berpotensi dua kali lebih mungkin untuk mati setelah didiagnosis Covid-19 pada Juni 2020.

Perubahan gaya hidup

Sampai saat ini, para ilmuwan belum mengetahui mengapa hal ini terjadi.

Namun, mereka menunjuk pada faktor-faktor seperti gaya hidup, merokok, dan perbedaan sistem imunitas di antara kedua jenis kelamin.

Tetapi, semakin mereka percaya pada faktor-faktor tersebut bisa terjadi karena androgen (hormon seks pria seperti testosteron) mungkin berperan tidak hanya dalam kerontokan rambut, melainkan dalam meningkatkan kemampuan virus corona untuk menyerang sel.

Hal ini meningkatkan kemungkinan bahwa perawatan yang menekan hormon-hormon ini, seperti yang digunakan untuk kebotakan serta penyakit seperti kanker prostat, dapat digunakan untuk memperlambat virus, dan memberi pasien waktu untuk melawannya.

"Kami pikir androgen atau hormon pria jelas merupakan pintu gerbang bagi virus untuk memasuki sel kita," ujar Profesor Wambier.


Obat kanker prostat

Di sisi lain, seorang ahli onkologi di UC Los Angeles, Matthew Rettig melakukan percobaan terhadap 200 veteran di Los Angeles, Seattle, dan New York menggunakan obat kanker prostat.

Percobaan mengikuti dua studi kecil di Spanyol yang dipimpin oleh Profesor Wambier.

Studi tersebut mengungkapkan, muncul pola ketidakproposionalan jumlah pria dengan pola kebotakan yang tengah dirawat di rumah sakit dengan Covid-19.

Dalam sebuah penelitian, 79 persen pria yang menderita Covid-19 di tiga rumah sakit di Madrid merupakan pria botak.

Penelitian terhadap 122 pasien, yang diterbitkan dalam Journal of American Academy of Dermatology menemukan 71 persen pasien tersebut botak.

Adapun tingkat latar belakang kebotakan pada pria kulit putih pada usia yang sama dengan pasien yang diteliti yakni antara 31-53 persen.

Korelasi serupa ditemukan dalam penelitian dengan sampel beberapa perempuan dengan kerontokan rambut yang dikaitkan dengan androgen.

Ilmuwan lain mengatakan, lebih banyak pekerjaan yang harus dilakukan, tetapi senang dengan hubungan yang potensial.

"Semua orang mengejar hubungan antara androgen dan hasil Covid-19," ujar Wakil Presiden Eksekutif di Prostate Cancer Foundation, Howard Soule kepada Science Magazine.

Diketahui, spesialis kanker prostat terbiasa dengan peran androgen yang dapat bermain di dalam penyakit tersebut lantaran itu ada di dalam prostat.

Hormon merangsang enzim yang meningkatkan pertumbuhan kanker.

Protein lonjakan

Pada April 2020, para peneliti menerbitkan sebuah makalah dalam jurnal Cell yang menunjukkan bahwa enzim TMPRSS2 juga terlibat dalam infeksi virus corona.

Untuk menginfeksi sel, virus corona menggunakan apa yang disebut protein 'lonjakan' yang mengikat membran sel, suatu proses yang diaktifkan oleh enzim.

Dalam hal ini, tampaknya TMPRSS2 mungkin enzim tersebut.



Para ilmuwan belum tahu apakah enzim merespons dengan cara yang sama dengan androgen di paru-paru seperti halnya di prostat, tetapi bukti lain tampaknya mendukung hubungan potensial ini.

Sebuah studi dari Veneto, Italia, dari 9.280 pasien menemukan bahwa laki-laki dengan kanker prostat yang menggunakan androgen-deprivation therapy (obat yang mengurangi kadar testosteron) hanya 25 persen mungkin untuk terkena Covid-19 dibandingkan laki-laki dengan tindakan penanganan yang berbeda.

Sementara itu, Kepala Kebijakan di Prostate Cancer UK, Karen Stalbow menyampaikan, ada beberapa penelitian terbaru yang menunjukkan mungkin ada hubungan antara hormon pria dan peningkatan risiko Covid-19.

Tindakan ini telah menyebabkan beberapa peneliti untuk menyelidiki apakah terapi hormon yang biasa digunakan untuk mengobati kanker prostat, seperti enzalutamide, dapat mengurangi risiko ini.

“Namun, sebagian besar penelitian sejauh ini telah di laboratorium, dan ada bukti yang bertentangan tentang apakah terapi hormon memiliki dampak yang sama di paru-paru seperti pada sel-sel prostat," ujar Stalbow.

"Sekarang ada beberapa studi klinis mulai yang berharap untuk mengatasi masalah ini, tetapi lebih banyak bukti diperlukan sebelum kita dapat mengetahui apakah terapi hormon ini akan menjadi pengobatan yang efektif untuk Covid-19," lanjut dia. Artikel ini telah tayang di Kompas.com
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