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Presiden Madagaskar Promosikan Ekstrak Tanaman Artemisia Mampu Lawan Covid-19

Berita Viral dan TerUpdate


Presiden Madagaskar Promosikan Ekstrak Tanaman Artemisia Mampu Lawan Covid-19

Presiden Madagaskar Promosikan Ekstrak Tanaman Artemisia Mampu Lawan Covid-19

Presiden Madagaskar Promosikan Ekstrak Tanaman Artemisia Mampu Lawan Covid-19

Madagaskar menarik banyak perhatian ketika April lalu, negara pulau di Afrika tersebut mengumumkan bahwa sebuah tanaman setempat dipakai untuk memerangi virus corona atau Covid-19.

Presiden Andry Rajoelina mempromosikan sebuah minuman yang mengandung ekstrak tanaman artemisia.

Berkaitan dengan tanaman ini, Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia (WHO) menyampaikan sejauh ini belum ada bukti bahwa tanaman yang beberapa kandungannya berkhasiat melawan malaria juga dapat melawan Covid-19.

Jadi, apa yang kita ketahui tentang tanaman ini dan kandungannya?

Artemisia annua berasal dari Asia, namun tumbuh di banyak tempat di dunia dengan cuaca terik dan panas.

Tanaman ini telah dipakai dalam obat-obatan tradisional China selama lebih dari 2.000 tahun untuk mengobati beberapa penyakit, seperti malaria, mengurangi rasa sakit, dan demam.

Dalam obat-obatan China, tanaman ini dikenal sebagai "qinghao".

Ini juga disebut sebagai apsintus manis atau tahunan, dan dipakai dalam terapi alternatif.

Tanaman ini bahkan dipakai juga dalam beberapa minuman beralkohol.

Dapatkah artemisia melawan Covid-19?
Presiden Madagaskar Andry Rajoelina mengatakan April lalu bahwa uji coba minuman Covid-Organik yang memakai artemisia menunjukkan efektivitas dalam memerangi Covid-19. Ia mengulangi klaim ini pada September.

Namun belum ada bukti yang ditunjukkan ke publik soal ini.

Komposisi pasti minuman itu juga tidak diketahui, meski pemerintah setempat mengatakan lebih dari 60 persen berasal dari tanaman artemisia.

Madagaskar juga mulai memproduksi kapsul dan obat lainnya yang bisa disuntikkan. Uji klinis terhadap keduanya telah dimulai.

Ilmuwan Jerman dan Denmark telah menguji ekstrak tanaman artemisia annua yang menurut mereka efektif membunuh virus corona di laboratorium.

Riset itu, yang belum dikaji secara independen oleh ilmuwan lainnya, menemukan bahwa ekstrak tersebut menunjukkan aktivitas antivirus jika dipakai bersama ethanol murni atau air distilasi.

Para periset bekerja sama dengan Universitas Kentucky di Amerika Serikat menggelar uji klinis kepada manusia dalam beberapa waktu mendatang.

China juga telah melakukan tes sendiri, berdasarkan obat-obatan tradisional yang memakai tanaman artemisia annua.

Ilmuwan di Afrika Selatan pun telah menguji keampuhan artemisia annua dan artemisia afra, jenis lain tanaman tersebut, dalam membunuh Covid-19 di laboratorium. Namun hasilnya belum keluar.

Apa kata WHO soal artemisia? World Health Organization (World Health Organization)

WHO mengatakan mereka belum memiliki informasi mendetail soal hasil pengujian di Madagaskar.

Jean-Baptiste Nikiema dari WHO Afrika mengatakan kepada BBC bahwa organisasi itu mungkin terlibat dalam tahapan uji klinis berikutnya, tergantung informasi yang mereka dapatkan dalam tahap awal uji klinis.

Saat ini, WHO mengatakan belum ada bukti bahwa produk-produk yang mengandung komponen artemisia dapat melawan Covid-19.

WHO mengatakan semua tanaman obat-obatan "harus diuji keefektifan dan efek sampingnya" melalui uji klinis yang teliti.

Bagaimana artemisia dipakai dalam mengobati malaria?

Bahan aktif yang ditemukan dalam dedaunan artemisia annua kering disebut artemisinin, dan ini efektif mengobati malaria.

Ilmuwan China pertama kali menemukan kandungan tersebut ketika mereka mencari obat malaria pada tahun 1970-an.

Terapi kombinasi berbasis artemisinin yang disingkat menjadi ACTs, direkomendasikan oleh WHO untuk mengobati malaria, terutama jenis malaria yang kini resisten terhadap klorokuin, salah satu obat utama bagi malaria.

ACTs mengandung turunan artemisinin, yang digabung dengan substansi lain. Ini mengurangi jumlah parasit malaria di tubuh.

Meningkatnya akses ke ACTs di negara-negara endemik malaria telah disebut sebagai faktor utama berkurangnya jumlah kematian akibat penyakit tersebut dalam 15 tahun terakhir.

Apa risiko dari resistansi obat?
Mengingat ekstrak artemisia annua mulai dipakai secara luas sebagai obat malaria, seperti dalam bentuk teh, ada kekhawatiran bahwa pemakaian yang tidak diregulasi dapat membuat parasit malaria tahan terhadap ekstrak tersebut.  

Resistansi ini telah terlihat di beberapa negara di Asia Tenggara.

"Kami tahu bahwa seiring dengan berjalannya waktu, parasit malaria akan mulai menunjukkan ketahanan, namun waktu ini harus selama mungkin," kata Jean-Baptiste Nikiema dari WHO.

WHO kini tidak mendorong pemakaian non-farmasi dari artemisinin, karena khawatir dapat meningkatkan resistansi parasit malaria.

Berita ini telah tayang di Kompas,com
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