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Inilah 6 Penyakit Yang Lebih Banyak Menjangkit Perempuan daripada Laki-Laki

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Inilah 6 Penyakit Yang Lebih Banyak Menjangkit Perempuan daripada Laki-Laki

6 Penyakit Ini Lebih Banyak Menjangkit Perempuan daripada Laki-Laki

Inilah 6 Penyakit Yang Lebih Banyak Menjangkit Perempuan daripada Laki-Laki

 


Ada berbagai faktor yang menyebabkan seseorang bisa terkena suatu penyakit.

Salah satunya adalah jenis kelamin.

Beberapa penyakit lebih sering terjadi pada perempuan dibanding laki-laki.

Sebagian besar hal ini turut dipengaruhi oleh hormon yang dimiliki perempuan.

Berikut enam penyakit yang lebih banyak dialami perempuan daripada laki-laki. 

1. Migrain

Suatu penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Duke-NUS Medical School dan Novartis menemukan migrain cenderung lebih sering terjadi pada perempuan dewasa daripada laki-laki.

Menurut Migraine Research Foundation di New York, perempuan mengalami migrain tiga kali lebih sering dibanding pria.

Alasannya karena fluktuasi hormonal setiap bulan.

Lebih dari 50 persen migrain pada perempuan terjadi tepat sebelum, selama, atau setelah menstruasi.


Tetapi penelitian berbasis laboratorium juga menemukan otak perempuan lebih mungkin memiliki pemicu untuk mengaktifkan gelombang aktivitas yang bertanggung jawab atas migrain.

Untuk mengatasinya, pastikan menambahkan menu makanan kaya folat seperti bayam, buah jeruk, kacang-kacangan, dan telur.

Folat dan vitamin B secara signifikan dapat mengurangi frekuensi serangan migrain dengan cara menurunkan kadar protein pemicu sakit kepala yaitu homosistein.

2. Stroke

Data menunjukkan satu dari lima perempuan mengalami stroke di hidupnya. 

Jumlah ini lebih tinggi daripada angka kasus pada pria yaitu satu banding enam.

Ada beberapa hal yang menbuat faktor risiko stroke lebih tinggi pada perempuan.

Pertama, penggunaan jenis terapi hormon tertentu dan pil kontrasepsi.

Keduanya meningkatkan risiko penggumpalan darah yang bisa menyebabkan stroke iskemik.

Selain itu, perempuan juga lebih berisiko mengalami pecahnya pembuluh darah di otak yang menyebabkan stroke hemoragik.


Untuk mencegahnya, lakukan lebih banyak olahraga.

Hal ini bisa membuat risiko stroke turun lebih dari sepertiga setelah berusia 45 tahun.

Salah satu alasannya karena berolahraga lebih dari empat jam seminggu membuat kemungkinan hipertensi 20 persen lebih rendah.

Seperti yang diketahui, hipertensi adalah penyebab utama stroke.

3. Rheumatoid arthritis

Penyakit autoimun ini terjadi tiga kali lebih banyak pada perempuan dibanding laki-laki.

Hingga saat ini belum diketahui penyebab pasti terjadinya rheumatoid artritis (RA).

Tapi kombinasi kromosom X dan gen yang berhubungan dengan kekebalan, hormon, serta faktor lingkungan diduga menjadi penyebabnya.

Cegah penyakit ini dengan konsumsi ikan berminyak seperti salmon, tuna, dan sarden setidaknya sekali seminggu.

Ikan-ikan tersebut tinggi asam lemak omega-3 termasuk DHA dan EPA yang membantu memblokir zat inflamasi sehingga bisa menurunkan risiko pengembangan RA sebanyak 52 persen.


Minyak ikan juga dikatakan dapat mengurangi nyeri sendi dan kekakuan pada pasien RA.

4. Insomnia

Banyak penelitian internasional yanh menunjukkan insomnia lebih sering terjadi pada perempuan dibandingkan pria.

Hal ini berkaitan dengan perubahan hormonal terutama di masa menopaus.

Selain itu, penelitian terbaru menunjukkan perempuan lebih mungkin mewarisi gen spesifik yang meningkatkan kemungkinan mengalami insomnia dibanding pria.

Untuk mengatasinya, sediakan waktu 20 menit sehari untuk meditasi kesadaran agar mencegah terjadinya insomnia.

Menurut suatu penelitian, meditasi dapat meningkatkan kualitas tidur yang signifikan bagi orang yang memiliki insomnia.

5. Depresi

Singapore Mental Health Study pada 2017 menemukan prevalensi gangguan depresi mayor (MDD) seumur hidup lebih tinggi pada perempuan (7,2 persen) dibandingkan dengan laki-laki (4,3 persen).

Khusus pada perempuan, hal ini berkaitan dengan peristiwa hidup tertentu yang bisa meningkatkan risiko depresi.

Contohnya melahirkan atau mengalami menopause lebih awal. Menopause juga merupakan faktor risiko jika memiliki riwayat depresi.


Selain itu, perempuan lebih cenderung mengurus anggota keluarga lain saat mengalami depresi sehingga meningkatkan risiko.

Menurut studi 2016, depresi bisa dicegah dengan cara menghabiskan setidaknya 30 menit di ruang hijau atau taman setiap minggu.

Waktu di alam bebas dapat menurunkan aktivitas di bagian otak yang terkait dengan perenungan atau pikiran negatif berulang.

6. Alzheimer

Menurut laporan fakta dan angka yang diterbitkan Asosiasi Alzheimer di Amerika Serikat pada 2014, satu dari enam perempuan di atas usia 65 bisa mengembangkan penyakit ini.

Sedangkan angkanya pada laki-laki lebih rendah yakni satu dari 11 laki-laki berisiko terkena Alzheimer.

Hal inu dikarenakan di otak perempuan cenderung terjadi penumpukan amiloid yang lebih banyak.

Protein ini membentuk plak yang berperan dalam perkembangan Alzheimer.

Para peneliti masih belum yakin alasan pasti untuk hal ini.

Tapi satu teori menyatakan membawa dua kromosom X meningkatkan risiko mewarisi gen penyebab Alzheimer.


Studi 2015 menyebut menerapkan pola makan MIND, dapat menurunkan risiko Alzheimer hingga 53 persen.

Selain itu, mengikuti prinsip diet dengan cukup baik dapat membantu menurunkan risiko hingga 35 persen.

Diet MIND terdiri dari makanan yang meningkatkan kesehatan otak seperti sayuran berdaun hijau, beri, kacang-kacangan, kacang-kacangan, biji-bijian, minyak zaitun, unggas, dan sedikit alkohol.

Artikel ini telah tayang di Kompas.com dengan judul "6 Penyakit yang Lebih Sering Terjadi Pada Wanita Dibandingkan Pria",
Editor : Wisnubrata

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