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Terjebak Utang China, Nasib Militer Paling Miskin di Dunia, Beruntung Dapat Bantuan Negara Ini

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Terjebak Utang China, Nasib Militer Paling Miskin di Dunia, Beruntung Dapat Bantuan Negara Ini

Terjebak Utang China, Nasib Militer Paling Miskin di Dunia, Beruntung Dapat Bantuan Negara Ini

Terjebak Utang China, Nasib Militer Paling Miskin di Dunia, Beruntung Dapat Bantuan Negara Ini

Rupanya ada negara Asia Tenggara yang punya militer paling miskin di dunia, yaitu Laos.

Laos menempati peringkat kedua militer paling miskin di dunia, di bawah Liberia.

Anggaran belanja pertahanan Laos tahun 2020 hanya sebesar $ 18,5 Juta, sementara Liberia $ 13 Juta.

Selain Laos dan Liberia, dalam 5 besar militer paling miskin di dunia juga ada Republik Afrika Tengah, Kirgistan, dan Bhutan.

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Tak heran jika Laos hanya menyediakan anggaran pertahanan yang kecil untuk militernya.

Di sisi lain, negara Asia Tenggara ini juga tengah terbelit utang dengan China.

Negara kecil ini menjadi korban terbaru diplomasi 'jebakan' utang Negeri Tirai Bambu.

Mengutip eurasiantimes.com (25/11/2020), program BRI andalan China telah menuai kritik yang luar biasa karena banyak kesepakatan bilateral dan multilateral antara negara-negara peserta terjadi dalam kerahasiaan mutlak.

Lembaga think tank yang berbasis di Washington, Center for Global Development memperingatkan bahwa 23 dari 68 negara yang mendapat manfaat dari investasi Belt and Road secara signifikan atau sangat rentan terhadap tekanan utang.


Laporan tersebut menyoroti sekitar delapan negara - Djibouti, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Mongolia, Montenegro, Maladewa, Pakistan, dan Tajikistan - yang khususnya berisiko mengalami kesulitan utang.

Di atas kertas, BRI bertujuan untuk mendukung pembiayaan infrastruktur di negara-negara Asia, Eropa, dan Afrika, dengan memberikan triliunan dolar.

Namun, laporan tersebut, menyatakan “kekhawatiran bahwa masalah utang akan menciptakan tingkat ketergantungan yang tidak menguntungkan pada China sebagai kreditor.

Laos saat ini berutang lebih dari 68% dari produk domestik bruto (PDB) - nya .

Sekitar setengah dari hutang publik ini adalah ke China , dan jumlah itu terus bertambah dikutip dari aseantoday.com (4/2/2019).


Padahal, Bank Dunia telah merekomendasikan agar Laos membatasi utangnya tidak lebih dari 40% dari PDB-nya.

Sementara Dana Moneter Internasional (IMF) sedikit lebih memaafkan, menyarankan batas 50% .

China sudah menggunakan hutang sebagai alat untuk mengontrol negara kecil itu, membuat kekhawatiran banyak pihak atas 'jebakan' utang China tampak bukan omong kosong belaka.

Ketika Laos gagal membayar kembali pinjaman US $ 80 juta dari China untuk pembangunan stadion untuk pertandingan Asia Tenggara, pemerintah mencapai kesepakatan dimana Laos memberikan konsesi lahan seluas 300 hektar kepada sebuah perusahaan China.

Meskipun demikian, Perdana Menteri Thongloun mengatakan tahun lalu bahwa dia "tidak terlalu peduli dengan beban hutang."
 

Pasalnya, Peningkatan hubungan dengan Rusia dianggap Laos dapat digunakan sebagai strategi untuk menahan pengaruh Tiongkok.

Namun, disebut hal itu akan menjadi bumerang jika menjadikan Laos sebagai medan pertempuran bagi Rusia dan China untuk bersaing memperebutkan pengaruh.

Hubungan militer Rusia dan Laos memang terjalin sejak lama.

Mengutip thediplomat.com, kedua negara telah lama memiliki hubungan pertahanan yang erat yang meluas di beberapa bidang, termasuk pendidikan militer, kerja sama penegakan hukum, dan pembelian peralatan militer.

Kemudian, hubungan tersebut juga meningkat belakangan ini, karena Rusia mencoba memperdalam hubungan dengan negara-negara Asia
Tenggara.

Selama beberapa tahun terakhir, kerja sama teknis militer telah diperhitungkan dalam kunjungan antara pejabat pertahanan.

Setelah kunjungannya ke Shoigu Januari 2018, Perdana Menteri Thongloun mengatakan bahwa laporannya tentang pertemuan dari menteri pertahanannya

memperkuat "signifikansi utama" Rusia yang melekat pada implementasi kesepakatan yang dicapai selama kunjungan sebelumnya ke Rusia.

Bahkan, dalam pengakuan yang agak jujur ​​tentang sejauh mana Laos bergantung pada Rusia untuk kebutuhan militernya, Thongloun juga mengatakan bahwa secara virtual "semua yang dimiliki Angkatan Bersenjata Laos sekarang terkait dengan Rusia."

Senjata Rusia telah lama menjadi bagian penting dari perannya di Asia Tenggara, dikutip aseantoday.com.

Rusia menjual lebih banyak senjata ke ASEAN daripada AS atau China.

Dari 2010 hingga 2017, penjualan oleh perusahaan pertahanan Rusia ke negara-negara ASEAN mencapai US $ 6,64 miliar, mewakili 12% dari penjualan senjata Rusia secara global.

AS, sebagai perbandingan, menjual senjata senilai US $ 4,58 miliar ke ASEAN pada periode yang sama, menyumbang 6% dari total penjualan senjata AS.

Rusia tidak hanya menjual lebih banyak senjata ke ASEAN, tetapi penjualan tersebut mewakili bagian yang lebih besar dari kontrak perusahaan pertahanan Rusia.

China menjual senjata jauh lebih sedikit di kawasan itu - total hanya US $ 1,8 miliar , 2010-17.
 

Menjalin hubungan militer dengan Rusia seperti itu, Laos kini menempati posisi yang lumayan dibanding dengan militer negara-negara dengan militer paling miskin lainnya, yaitu berada di peringkat 131 dari 138 negara.

Dengan peringkat kekuatan tersebut, Laos mengalahkan kekuatan militer Panama, Bosnia dan Herzegovina, Sierra Leone, Suriname, Somalia, Liberia dan Bhutan.

Untuk persenjataan sektor udaranya, tetangga Indonesia ini memiliki 27 helikopter, 2 angkutan, dan 4 pelatih.

Kemudian dari sektor darat, Laos memiliki 65 tank, 30 kendaraan lapis baja, dan 62 artileri derek.

Sementara kekuatan lautnya, militer Laos dibekali 35 kapal patroli.



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