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Kisah Baia, Kota Maksiat yang Tenggelam di Dasar Lautan

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Kisah Baia, Kota Maksiat yang Tenggelam di Dasar Lautan

Kisah Baia, Kota Maksiat yang Tenggelam di Dasar Lautan



Kisah Baia, Kota Maksiat yang Tenggelam di Dasar Lautan

Baia bak Las Vegas pada era Kekaisaran Romawi Kuno. Sama-sama dijuluki 'surga dunia'. Pada 2.000 tahun lalu, di sana lah kaum kaya dan berkuasa datang, untuk memuaskan nafsu duniawi mereka.

Orang-orang kaya Romawi menghabiskan akhir pekan mereka di kota itu. Tujuannya, untuk pesta pora. Mereka yang berkantong tebal dan punya kekuasaan membangun vila-vila mewah di area pantai, lengkap dengan spa dan kolam berlapis mozaik keramik yang berkilauan, demi memanjatkan hasrat terliar.

Salah satu warga berduit bahkan memerintahkan pembangunan nymphaeum, monumen dari batu, yang bentuknya mirip gua, dipenuhi patung-patung marmer, yang didedikasikan untuk 'kenikmatan duniawi'.

Kota hiburan yang berjarak 30 kilometer dari Naples itu menjadi magnet untuk para penyair, jenderal, siapapun.

Orator besar era Romawi Kuno, Cicero menyusun pidatonya di rumah peristirahatannya di dekat teluk. Sementara penyair Virgil dan naturalis Pliny punya rumah yang letaknya tak jauh dari pemandian umum yang konon bisa bikin awet muda.

Riwayat Baia juga diwarnai drama politik. "Ada banyak cerita intrik yang dikaitkan dengan Baia," kata John Smout, seorang peneliti yang menyelidiki situs kota kuno tersebut, seperti dikutip dari BBC, Selasa (9/1/2018).

Rumor menyebut, Cleopatra melarikan diri dari Baia setelah Julius Caesar tewas terbunuh pada tahun 44 Sebelum Masehi.

Sementara, Julia Agrippina merencanakan plot pembunuhan suaminya sendiri, Claudius di Baia. Tujuannya, agar putranya, Nero bisa menjadi Kaisar Romawi.

"Ia meracuni Claudius dengan jamur beracun," kata Smout. "Namun, target berhasil selamat, sehingga pada malam yang sama, Agrippina menyuruh tabib untuk kudapan ramuan labu manis beracun. Cara itu berhasil mengakhiri nyawanya."

Binasa karena Kutukan?

Ada sejumlah adat istiadat kuno terkait dengan pernikahan, pertanda cinta, dan seks yang terdengar tidak biasa dalam ukuran masa kini. (Sumber

Air dengan kandungan mineral dan iklim hangat menarik perhatian masyarakat Romawi Kuno untuk mengunjungi Baia sejak pertengahan Abad ke-2 Sebelum Masehi. Saat itu, kota ini disebut sebagai Daratan Phlegraean (berapi) karena rekahan kawah gunung berapi yang banyak ditemui di sana.

"Saya mengunjungi situs tersebut ketika masih kecil dan melihat pemandu menancapkan gagang payung ke tanah, lalu beberapa saat kemudian memunculkan uap dan lava ringan," cerita Smout.

Tepian kaldera tersebut dianggap oleh Yunani dan Romawi kuno sebagai pintu menuju dunia bawah tanah.

Lebih dari itu, Baia juga dipenuhi oleh berbagai perkembangan teknologi yang cukup pesat, seperti penemuan semen tahan air yang terbuat dari campuran gamping dan batuan vulkanis.

Hal ini mendorong banyak orang kala itu memanfaatkan untuk membuat kubah-kubah raksasa, fasad atau eksterior marmer, kolam ikan, dan kamar mandi yang mewah.

Namun, reputasi Baia sebagai 'kota penuh dosa' dipercaya sebagai legenda yang mendorong aktivitas vulkanik untuk mengakhiri eksistensinya.

Entah karena kutukan atau peristiwa alami. Secara ilmu pengetahuan, kawasan kota kuno ini telah melalui banyak perubahan selama brabad-abad, melewati berbagai peristiwa vulkanik, permukaannya beberapa kali naik turun akibat panas bumi dan gerak seismik, membuat sebagian besar wilayahnya terkubur di bawah laut hingga kini.

Penampakan Tahun 1940-an

Erupsi Gunung Vesuvius pada masa kuno diduga oleh para ilmuwan menghancurkan sejumlah peradaban sekitar (Wikimedia Commons)

Publik mulai menaruh perhatian terhadap situs sejarah ini sejak 1940-an ketika terbit sebuah serial foto wilayah yang menunjukkan penampakan situs kota di bawah permukaan laut.

Butuh waktu dua dekade kemudian bagi pemerintah Italia untuk mulai 'mengurusnya' dengan serius melalui penelitian bawah laut yang dibantu Angkatan Lautnya.

Situs arkeologi tersebut baru ditetapkan sebagai kawasan dilindungi pada 2002 setelah dilakukan pemetaan tiga dimensi yang menunjukkan beberapa temuan penting, seperti berbagai bangunan berbentuk bulat dan teras-teras raksasa, termasuk di dalamnya Kuil Venus yang sejatinya bukan merupakan kuil, melainkan sebuah pemandian geotermal.

Kini, akibat gerakan lempeng Bumi, kawasan situs sejarah tersebut berada di area yang lebih dangkal, yakni sedalam 6 meter. Hal ini memberikan kemudahan akses bagi turis untuk menikmatinya dari atas perahu berlantai kaca atau videobraca.

Meskipun begitu, aktivitas penyelaman memerlukan izin ketat karena statusnya sebagai kawasan lindung.


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