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Fakta-Fakta Soal Metan Hidrat, Harta Karun Migas Baru RI

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Fakta-Fakta Soal Metan Hidrat, Harta Karun Migas Baru RI

Fakta-Fakta Soal Metan Hidrat, Harta Karun Migas Baru RI



Menteri Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (ESDM) Arifin Tasrif menyampaikan 'harta karun' baru di sektor minyak dan gas (migas) RI. Tak tanggung-tanggung, Arifin menyebut sumber daya 'harta karun' baru ini bisa diproduksi hingga 800 tahun lamanya.

'Harta karun' tersebut bernama metan hidrat atau gas hidrat. Namun sayangnya sampai saat ini migas non konvensional ini masih belum tersentuh.

Oleh karena itu, Arifin berharap agar ini bisa dikembangkan dan menjadi sumber alternatif baru untuk mendukung ketahanan energi nasional di masa mendatang.

"Kita harap ini bisa jadi sumber energi alternatif baru, ini mendukung ketahanan energi 800 tahun ke depan," ungkapnya dalam webinar, Selasa (08/06/2021).

Untuk mengenal seputar metan hidrat atau gas hidrat, berikut CNBC Indonesia rangkum fakta-faktanya:

Apa Itu Metan Hidrat?

Guru Besar Fakultas Teknik Pertambangan dan Perminyakan ITB Doddy Abdassah mengatakan metan hidrat adalah gas hidrat berbentuk kristal es di mana molekul air membentuk struktur seperti kurungan atau clathrate, sehingga memiliki rongga yang dapat terisi oleh molekul gas.

"Jadi ada kurungan molekul-molekul air, kemudian di tengahnya menjebak molekul hidrokarbon bisa metana, C2, C3 ada juga CO2," paparnya dalam webinar secara daring, Selasa (09/05/2021).

Gas hidrat ini menurutnya sering disebut dengan 'Fire Ice' karena bentuknya seperti es, namun bisa terbakar.

"Gas Hidrat sering juga disebut sebagai 'Fire Ice'," ujarnya.

Berapa Besar Potensi Metan Hidrat?

Doddy mengatakan, sebagai perbandingan, deposit gas alam mencapai 13.000 triliun kaki kubik (TCF). Sementara deposit gas hidrat di darat saja mencapai 5.000 - 12.000.000 TCF dan di bawah laut 30.000 - 49.000.000 TCF.

Lebih lanjut dia menjelaskan gas hidrat adalah sumber daya hidrokarbon non konvensional terbesar di bumi dan diperkirakan 50% deposit hidrokarbon tersimpan dalam bentuk gas hidrat.

Di Mana Saja Lokasi Sumber Gasnya?

Mengenai sumber gas, Dirjen Migas Kementerian ESDM Tutuka Ariadji mengatakan, potensi gas hidrat ada di pinggir-pinggir benua, baik di Eropa, Afrika, Amerika Utara dan Selatan.

Berdasarkan data Badan Litbang ESDM, dua area diketahui menjadi tempat akumulasi gas hidrat itu yaitu area permafrost di sekitar Kutub Utara dan sea beds di laut dalam.

Namun demikian, Tutuka mengatakan, Indonesia juga punya potensi gas hidrat ini.

Berdasarkan survei di awal tahun 2004, Indonesia berhasil menemukan sumber daya metan hidrat sebesar 850 TCF. Berada di dua lokasi utama yaitu perairan Selatan Sumatera sampai ke arah Barat Laut Jawa (625 TCF) dan di Selat Makassar Sulawesi (233,2 TCF).

Berdasarkan data Balitbang ESDM, PT Pertamina (Persero) bahkan memperkirakan potensi gas hidrat di Indonesia mencapai 3.000 TCF. Namun, besaran nilai ini masih sering diperdebatkan karena belum ada penelitian komprehensif terkait gas hidrat di Indonesia.

Merujuk kepada peta topografi dasar laut Indonesia, banyak sea beds pada area laut dalam Indonesia diperkirakan memiliki akumulasi gas hidrat dengan nilai volumetrik yang sangat besar.

Analisis berdasarkan data seismik menunjukkan bahwa gas hidrat tersebar di daerah lepas pantai Simeuleu, Palung Mentawai, Selat Sunda, Busur Depan Jawa, Lombok Utara, Selat Makassar, Laut Sulawesi, Aru, Misool, Kumawa, Wigeo, Wokam dan Salawati. Daerah lain yang dianggap memiliki potensi gas hidrat adalah Laut Flores, Teluk Bone, Laut Sawu, Laut Timor, lepas pantai selatan Banggai, Laut Banda, Laut Seram, Laut Maluku, dan lepas pantai utara Papua. 

Adakah Negara yang Produksi Gas Hidrat Ini?

Mengenai hal ini, Doddy menjelaskan jika gas hidrat ini sudah mature. Penelitian terkait gas hidrat ini sudah dilakukan sejak lama dan sudah siap diproduksikan.

Proyek uji coba (pilot test) pernah dilakukan oleh Jepang.

"Ada ada pilot test produksi gas hidrat di Nankai Trough Jepang," ujarnya.

Selain Jepang, berdasarkan data Balitbang ESDM, uji coba juga pernah dilakukan di sejumlah negara seperti China, Korea, India, Kanada, Amerika Serikat, dan Rusia.

Sejauh ini mekanisme yang digunakan dalam uji coba produksi tersebut adalah depressurization, stimulasi panas dan injeksi inhibitor.

Apa Saja Tantangannya?

Tutuka mengatakan, masih barunya gas hidrat ini, sehingga masih memiliki sejumlah tantangan untuk pengembangannya, antara lain:

1. Masih minimnya penelitian terkait gas hidrat ini. Oleh karena itu, penelitian terkait metan hidrat harus terus digalakkan di negara ini, apalagi Indonesia memiliki banyak perairan dan kaya akan metan hidrat.

2. Membiarkan metan hidrat tetap berada di dasar laut berpotensi lepasnya metan ke atmosfer dalam jumlah signifikan saat terjadi kenaikan suhu air atau atmosfir.

Hal tersebut dapat berakibat pada efek pemanasan global yang ekstrem mengingat efek rumah kaca yang ditimbulkan metan adalah 25 kali
lebih kuat daripada CO2.

3. Walaupun sumber daya metan hidrat sangat besar, terdapat tantangan besar dalam pengusahaan metan hidrat yaitu cara untuk memproduksikan metan hidrat. Belum ada teknologi yang bisa menghasilkan metan hidrat secara komersial.

4. Operasional berisiko tinggi, mahal dan tidak stabilnya gas pada tekanan dan suhu permukaan laut membuat tantangan eksplorasi serta produksi metan hidrat lepas pantai menjadi sangat besar.

5. Riset yang komprehensif dan terintegrasi diperlukan dalam pengembangan metan hidrat sebagai landasan regulasi baru atau melengkapi regulasi yang sudah ada.

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