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Selain Sembako Sekolah juga Bakal Kena Pajak, Alasannya Demi Keadilan, Benarkah?

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Selain Sembako Sekolah juga Bakal Kena Pajak, Alasannya Demi Keadilan, Benarkah?

Selain Sembako Sekolah juga Bakal Kena Pajak, Alasannya Demi Keadilan, Benarkah?

 

Selain Sembako Sekolah juga Bakal Kena Pajak, Alasannya Demi Keadilan, Benarkah?

Pemerintah berencana menarik Pajak Pertambahan Nilai (PPN) terhadap sejumlah barang atau jasa tertentu. Rencana itu tertuang dalam revisi Undang-Undang Nomor 6 tahun 1983 tentang Ketentuan Umum dan Tata Cara Perpajakan (KUP).

Untuk kategori barang, pemerintah akan mengenakan PPN pada kelompok bahan kebutuhan pokok atau sembako dan hasil pertambangan, dari yang saat ini masih bebas pajak. Sementara untuk kategori jasa, pemerintah akan mengenakan PPN pada 11 kelompok jasa yang saat ini masih bebas PPN. Di antaranya jasa pendidikan.

Sebelumnya jasa pendidikan masuk kategori jasa bebas PPN. Hal itu tertuang dalam Peraturan Menteri Keuangan (PMK) Nomor 223/PMK.011/2014 tentang Kriteria Jasa Pendidikan yang Tidak Dikenai PPN.

Dalam Pasal 2 PMK tersebut disebutkan kelompok jasa pendidikan yang tidak dikenai PPN adalah jasa penyelenggaraan pendidikan sekolah, seperti jasa penyelenggaraan pendidikan umum, pendidikan kejuruan, pendidikan luar biasa, pendidikan kedinasan, pendidikan keagamaan, pendidikan akademik, dan pendidikan profesional.

Kemudian jasa penyelenggaraan pendidikan luar sekolah juga tak dikenai PPN, termasuk jasa pendidikan non formal dan pendidikan formal.

Lalu dalam Pasal 4 dijelaskan rincian jasa penyelenggaraan pendidikan, baik yang formal, non formal, dan informal. Untuk pendidikan formal terdiri dari jasa penyelenggaraan pendidikan usia dini, pendidikan dasar, pendidikan menengah, dan pendidikan tinggi. Untuk jasa penyelenggaraan pendidikan non formal terdiri dari jasa penyelenggaraan pendidikan kecakapan hidup, pendidikan anak usia dini, pendidikan kepemudaan.

Kemudian pendidikan pemberdayaan perempuan, pendidikan keaksaraan, pendidikan keterampilan dan pelatihan kerja, dan pendidikan kesetaraan. Lalu, jasa penyelenggaraan pendidikan informal terdiri dari jasa penyelenggaraan pendidikan yang dilakukan oleh keluarga dan lingkungan yang berbentuk kegiatan belajar secara mandiri.

Semua jenis jasa pendidikan tersebut masih belum dikenai PPN sekarang. Namun, jika revisi KUP 'diketok', maka berpotensi dikenai PPN.

Dalam rancangan (draft) RUU KUP yang diterima Tribunnews.com, pemerintah menghapuskan jasa pendidikan dari kategori jasa yang tidak dikenai PPN.

"Jenis jasa yang tidak dikenai Pajak Pertambahan Nilai yakni jasa tertentu dalam kelompok jasa sebagai berikut, g (jasa pendidikan) dihapus," bunyi draft RUU KUP dikutip, Kamis (10/6).

Staf Khusus Menteri Keuangan Bidang Komunikasi Strategis Yustinus Prastowo mengatakan, dasar rencana pengenaan PPN sekolah adalah untuk keadilan.

"Bukan soal potensi (pajaknya), tapi fairness (keadilan)," katanya.

Keadilan ini, lanjut dia, bisa diberikan dengan mengenakan pajak kepada masyarakat yang sebenarnya mampu, sehingga tidak perlu mendapat pembebasan PPN.

"Dua anak SMA, satu di sekolah negeri, satu di sekolah swasta yang mahal, keduanya tidak kena PPN saat ini kan? Padahal konsumennya punya kemampuan ekonomi yang berbeda. Penyelenggara yang memungut biaya cukup mahal mustinya juga mampu," ujarnya.

Yustinus mengklaim pengenaan PPN pada sekolah tidak serta merta membuat biaya sekolah yang selama ini dibayarkan masyarakat jadi meningkat.

Menurutnya, meski pemerintah mengutamakan keadilan pengenaan PPN bagi semua sekolah pun, hasilnya bisa berbeda di lapangan.

"Belum tentu, apalagi tarif PPN-nya bisa yang rendah. (misal) kalau saya penyelenggara sekolah, jika ada PPN, lalu uang sekolah naik, maka saya pilih berkorban, kurangi keuntungan saya biar biaya tidak naik. Ini namanya backward shifting," sambung dia.

Kemungkinan lain, untuk sekolah yang selama ini biaya pendidikannya mendapat tanggungan dari pemerintah, saat pajak dikenakan maka bisa saja biaya sekolahnya juga tak naik karena masuk dalam biaya yang ditanggung pemerintah.

"Kalau yang seperti ini kan nirlaba atau subsidi, jadi tidak dikenai PPN. Jadi sasarannya lebih kepada yang segmennya konsumen mampu, termasuk pendidikan non-sekolah," jelasnya.

Lebih lanjut, Yustinus memberi sinyal bahwa dampaknya nanti akan bergantung pada masing-masing penyelenggara pendidikan.

"Terserah mereka saja, kalau biaya naik dan kompetitif, ya bisa jadi konsumen pindah ke sekolah lain. Jadi ini malah sehat bagi biaya yang lebih kompetitif. Tapi intinya menjadi lebih adil kan?" tegasnya.

Selain pendidikan, jasa lainnya yang dipungut PPN meliputi jasa pelayanan kesehatan medis, jasa pelayanan sosial, jasa pengiriman surat dengan perangko, jasa keuangan, dan jasa asuransi.

Selanjutnya, jasa penyiaran yang tidak bersifat iklan, jasa angkutan umum di darat dan di air serta jasa angkutan udara dalam negeri yang menjadi bagian yang tidak terpisahkan dari jasa angkutan udara luar negeri, dan jasa tenaga kerja. Kemudian, jasa telepon umum dengan menggunakan uang logam dan jasa pengiriman uang dengan wesel pos. Sebelumnya, jasa tersebut masuk dalam kategori jasa bebas pungutan PPN.

Sementara itu kategori jasa bebas PPN dalam RUU KUP yakni jasa keagamaan, jasa kesenian dan hiburan, jasa perhotelan, jasa yang disediakan oleh pemerintah dalam rangka menjalankan pemerintahan secara umum, jasa penyediaan tempat parkir, dan jasa boga atau katering.

Secara total, pemerintah mengeluarkan 11 jenis jasa dari kategori bebas PPN. Dengan demikian, hanya tersisa enam jenis jasa bebas PPN dari sebelumnya 17 jenis jasa.
Artikel ini telah tayang di TribunJateng.com

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